Protist Lab

A number of different protists, photos taken under a compound microscope by Douglas J. Ericson (me).

Radiolaria

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Shell = Test

Foraminifera

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Shell = Test

Amoeba proteus

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Mixed Ciliates

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Mixed Flagellates 

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Paramecium caudatum- fission

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Plasmodium vivax in blood smear

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Live Amoeba

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Live Euglena

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Live Paramecium

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Live Spirostomium

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 Live Stentor

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Live Volvox 

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-Glossary: Any terms without corresponding pictures have examples shown above. The pictures below are not my own.

-Contractile Vacuole: A vacuole that contracts to expel fluid from a cell, usually water.

 

 

 

 

-Trichocyst: A type of extrusome, an organelle that is capable of ejection, found in the cytoplasm of certain ciliates and dinoflagellates.

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(The Neon Blue objects)

 

 

 

 

 

-Cytoskeleton: The framework of a cell which is made of actin and microtubules that are involved in locomotion, cell structure, cell growth, division, and many other functions.

-Test: The hard shell of some organisms (Radiolaria and Foraminiferans, other organisms).

-Fission: The division of a cell into two separate cells with duplicate organelles and DNA. Copies.

https://www.flickr.com/photos/bennettscience/31564350193

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-Food Vacuole: A vacuole (bubble) of cytoplasm created by the endocytosis or phagocytosis of a food item (could be a cell) found inside a cell or organism.

-Exocytosis: The expelling of waste out of the cell by creating a waste vacuole and allowing it adduct to the membrane sending the waste out of the membrane into the environment.

-Phagocytosis: The endocytosis of a cell. A cell engulfing and digesting another cell.

 

 

 

 

 

-Cilia: Microscopic projections, mimicking hair, that cover the outer membrane of certain cells. These organelles power locomotion in ciliate organisms, they can serve other functions in other organisms (i.e. movement of liquid).

-Macronucleus: The larger nucleus that is involved in all non-reproductive functions. This structure is unique to ciliate organisms.

 

 

 

 

 

-Micronucleus: The smaller of the nuclei found in Ciliates which is responsible for cell division and is exclusively used during reproduction.

 

 

 

 

 

 

-Cytostome/ Oral Groove: A funnel or groove supported by microtubules that is unique to certain protozoa, ciliates and excavates, that is specialized for phagocytosis. Cytostome = cell mouth

-Flagella: A microscopic thread-like structure that allow many protists, and other microscopic organisms, to swim. Used for locomotion.

-Undulating Membrane: An organelle of some flagellates that consists of a flagellum attached to the plasma membrane which expands and deflates to create a unique style of locomotion.

 

 

 

 

 

-Kinetoplast: A complex consisting of circular DNA inside of a large mitochondrion. A large mitochondrion.

 

 

 

 

 

-Eye Spot: An intensely pigmented region of certain organisms that serves as a light receptor.

-Apical Complex: An organ complex unique to the Apicomplexans that has a cone shape found on the apical end of the cell. Its function is to assist in penetration of a host cell.

 

 

 

 

-Sporozoites: A group of cells that are infectious released from sporozoans formed by the division of the zygote.

https://pixnio.com/science/microscopy-images/malaria-plasmodium/sporozoites-infect-liver-cells-and-mature-into-schizonts-which-rupture-and-release-merozoites

 

 

 

 

 

 

https://www.flickr.com/photos/niaid/16657642929

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-Merozoites: Cells produced by multiple fission processes in the asexual stage of some protozoans.

https://pixnio.com/science/microscopy-images/malaria-plasmodium/micrograph-depicts-a-mature-plasmodium-vivax-schizont-containing-16-merozoites

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gametocytes: A cell that produces gametes.

https://pixnio.com/science/microscopy-images/malaria-plasmodium/thin-film-giemsa-stained-micrograph-reveals-ring-forms-and-gametocytes-of-plasmodium-falciparum

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Oocyst: A structure characterized by having thick walls and is unique to the parasitic protozoans which develops into sporozoites.

https://pixnio.com/science/microscopy-images/presence-of-four-cyclospora-cayetanensis-oocysts-in-the-field-of-view

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-Schizogony:  “An asexual type of reproductive process by protozoans by multiple fission.” (http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Schizogony)

https://pixnio.com/science/microscopy-images/malaria-plasmodium/malarial-parasites-undergo-asexual-multiplication-in-the-erythrocytes-ie-erythrocytic-schizogony

 

 

 

 

 

 

-Pellicle: A thin tissue that supports the cell membrane in many protozoa.

 

 

 

 

 

-Pseudopodia: An extension of the plasma membrane which resembles an arm or appendage which is used to surround and engulf a food item or other cell. Aids in endocytosis and phagocytosis.

 

 

 

 

 

-Axopodia: A type of pseudopodium whose structure consists of a rod structure made of microfilaments surrounded by the ectoplasmic membrane. This structure is seen in Radiolaria.